PRC News

Countries urged to start bargaining over negative emissions

There is an emerging consensus CO2 needs to be sucked out of the air to meet climate goals, but no discussion of which countries are responsible for acting. Countries need to start negotiating who will take responsibility for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

To hold global warming “well below 2C”, as agreed by world leaders in Paris, models assume “negative emissions” will be deployed on a massive scale. Yet there has been little discussion of how to ramp up the necessary technologies, or who should lead that effort.

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Valley Pollution Levels

The pollution level of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 microns) of Kathmandu Valley in a day is shown in a graph. Pollution monitoring stations are located at 17 places in the Valley. 

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Paris climate deal needs to be politically, not legally, binding

Donald Trump’s announcement that he intends to withdraw the US from the Paris climate agreement has sparked renewed interest in the question of what the agreement actually requires countries to do.

Most legal analysts, climate negotiators, and other close observers of the process have taken the position that the agreement itself makes emission reduction pledges essentially voluntary, since countries have free rein to set their own targets and policies and are not required to meet the targets they put forward.

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Climate threatens ‘Himalayan Viagra’ fungus, and a way of life

A Himalayan fungus used in Chinese medicine, which underpins the livelihoods of communities of harvesters in Nepal, is under the threat due to climate change.

Harvesting the Cordyceps sinensis fungus, called ‘yarsha gumba’ in Nepal, provides a livelihood for Himalayan dwellers. The fungus fetches up to Rs 2,800,000 (£20,000) per kg in raw form. During the peak season of yarsha collection, locals drop everything to pursue fungus hunting, including their usual profession. Even schools remain closed during yarsha collecting seasons.

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Waste management a problem of attitude, not awareness

If you walk along the streets of Kathmandu, you might no longer see the heaps of waste that used to be a common sight a few years back. The credit largely goes to the fact that Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) started penalizing haphazard waste dumpers.

Even with KMC’s efforts, we still have a long way to go in order to have a clean city. Every person generates about 400 gm of waste, including paper, wrappers, tissues, plastic bags and bottles, each day. These waste materials are carelessly thrown out in the streets.

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World has three years left to stop dangerous climate change, warn experts

Avoiding dangerous levels of climate change is still just about possible, but will require unprecedented effort and coordination from governments, businesses, citizens and scientists in the next three years, a group of prominent experts has warned.

Warnings over global warming have picked up pace in recent months, even as the political environment has grown chilly with Donald Trump’s formal announcement of the US's withdrawal from the Paris agreement. This year’s weather has beaten high temperature records in some regions, and 2014,2015 and 2016 were the hottest years on record. 

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Climate change is real as far as Nepal is concerned

It is no longer a hypothesis or myth. The impact of climate change is real as far as Nepal is concerned. A major climate change impact survey commissioned by the government has revealed compelling evidence that Nepal is already at the receiving end of climate change in a number of ways. 

The first of its kind National Climate Change Impact Survey (NCCIS) conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) has shown that the impact of climate change has been experienced in various sectors, mainly in agriculture, forests and biodiversity, water resources and the energy sector.

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Air Quality Management Action Plan for Kathmandu Valley soon

The government is preparing an action plan to tackle air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. The action plan proposes an Integrated Urban Air Quality Management Framework to keep check on air quality of the Kathmandu Valley, a separate strategy on assessment of impact of air pollution on environment, health and economy, and recommendations for hospitals, industries and brick kilns to reduce waste and pollution. 

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‘Bad-ass business women’ bring solar empowerment to Nepal

A widow, Jha lives in one room with her three teenage children. In rural Nepal, widows are treated as social outcasts. They are seen as predatory, potential husband-stealers and their interactions with men are frowned upon. Empower Generation (NGO) has helped women overcome cultural taboos and start their own clean energy businesses. The NGO will be awarded a £20,000 Ashden award on for promoting the role of women and girls in the clean energy sector.

Solar power’s effect on village life is inarguable. Its allows for cleaner home environments, with light into the evenings and the ability to charge a mobile phone.

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Kathmandu Valley Pollution Levels

Pollution monitoring stations are located at 17 places in the Valley. The newly updated data on the pollutant of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 microns) of Kathmandu Valley in a day is shown by a graph. The graph represents hourly average readings of the stations. 

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Poor world calls for climate finance to fill Trump void

At the beginning of June, US president Donald Trump announced he would leave the Paris climate accord and cease funding to overseas climate programmes. The Ethiopian government, which chairs the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF), a group of 48 nations on the front line of climate change, said the US had left the world’s poorest and most fragile communities exposed.

Other wealthy nations will have to do more to fill the hole in global climate finance left by the US, according to the world’s most vulnerable countries. At the Copenhagen climate conference in 2009, rich nations pledged to shift $100bn worth of investments, grants and loans to climate action in the poor world every year, starting in 2020.

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Seventy percent of Chinese companies fail air pollution checks: media

More than 70 per cent of companies checked by Chinese authorities failed environmental standards during the latest round of air pollution inspections, state media reported on Sunday. The findings came after two months of inspections across 28 cities in the notoriously smoggy Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and other nearby areas, the official Xinhua news agency said.

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A promise on Paris agreement emerges as world 'wavers' on climate action

Major European countries have pledged to keep the Paris climate agreement on track amid “wavering” world commitment in a new development consensus agreed between the EU’s member states and signed in Brussels on Wednesday.

The consensus sets out a framework for the overall direction of European development policy, but for some nations the commitments do not go far enough.

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Marine reserves are helping ecosystems cope with climate change: study

Marine reserves are helping ecosystems adapt to the impacts of global warming, as well as protecting against overfishing and pollution. The international study found that reserves help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five harmful consequences of climate change: ocean acidification; sea-level rise; the increased intensity of storms; shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and availability of oxygen.

Reserves also can also help to increase the long-term storage of carbon from greenhouse gas emissions, especially in coastal wetlands, which helps to reduce the rate of climate change, the study found.

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China and California sign deal to work on climate change without Trump

China and California have signed an agreement to work together on reducing emissions, as the state’s governor warned that “disaster still looms” without urgent action on climate change.

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, spoke to reporters at an international clean energy conference in Beijing about Trump's decision to pull the US out of the Paris agreement, saying it would ultimately prove to be only a temporary setback. For now, he said, China, European countries and individual US states would fill the gap left by the federal government’s decision to abdicate leadership on the issue.

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Is deep sea mining vital for a greener future – even if it destroys ecosystems?

Mining the deep ocean floor for valuable metals is both inevitable and vital, according to the scientists, engineers and industrialists exploring the world’s newest mining frontier.

A new gold rush is targeting rich ores on the ocean floor containing valuable metals needed for smartphones and green technologies, but also hosting exotic ecosystems.

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Donald Trump’s US leaves Paris climate agreement

Donald Trump withdraws the US from 2015 Paris climate agreement, leaving the US standing almost alone against action on climate change. Trump said on Thursday that the United States, the world’s second-largest greenhouse gas emitter, would exit the Paris climate change agreement, but then attempt to reenter the deal on its own terms.

Trump argued that the US was getting a raw deal from the accord. He, like most congressional Republicans and conservatives off Capitol Hill, contended the US would sacrifice too much while competitors like China and India face less stringent, immediate restrictions.

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Mayor’s ‘Clean the City’ campaign starts today

Newly-elected Mayor of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) Bidya Sunder Shakya has announced that  city garbage will be collected before dawn from Thursday as part of a 'Clean the City' campaign. After assuming office at Sundhara on Wednesday, the mayor and his team decided to clean the city to address the dust problem in the city that has been choking the capital for months. 

“Our first board meeting decided to work for controlling dust in the city,” Shakya informed the media after the meeting. “For this, we have planned a road cleaning program from tomorrow (Thursday) and it will be continued.”

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UN chief Guterres says climate deal is essential

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has said it is "absolutely essential" that the world unite to combat the threat from climate change. Speaking in New York, Mr Guterres said if any country doubted the need for the 2015 Paris climate accord, then other countries must "stay the course".

He was speaking after US President Donald Trump refused to join other leaders of the G7 group of rich nations in reaffirming support for the accord.

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EU climate laws undermined by Polish and Czech revolt, documents reveal


East European EU states are mounting a behind-the-scenes revolt against the Paris Agreement, blocking key measures needed to deliver the pledge that they signed up to 18 months ago. Under the climate accord, Europe promised to shave 40% off its emissions by 2030, mostly by revising existing climate laws on renewables, energy efficiency and its flagship Emissions Trading System (ETS).

Energy efficiency is supposed to make up around half of Europe’s emissions reductions by 2030, but a Czech proposal could cut energy saving obligations from a headline 1.5% a year figure to just 0.35% in practice.

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Transparency is essential to make aviation climate deal work

Last October, many rejoiced when 190 governments reached agreement on a climate deal for international aviation, but many details still need to be worked out, with transparency being one of the most important, to ensure the agreement truly helps the environment.

Countries are meeting soon to discuss the rules that will govern the agreement. These meetings are highly technical but also highly consequential. If the outcome is hiding the aviation agreement’s results from the world, we will have no way to know we are flying on course to a sustainable planet.

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Sea level rise will double coastal flood risk worldwide

Small but inevitable rises in sea level will double the frequency of severe coastal flooding in most of the world with dire consequences for major cities that sit on coastlines, according to scientists. The most vulnerable places, including large cities in Brazil and Ivory Coast, and small Pacific islands, are expected to experience the doubling within a decade.

Climate change is causing sea levels to rise at about 4mm per year, as ice caps melt and the oceans warm and expand. This will continue for many years due to the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere.

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38,000 people a year die early because of diesel emissions testing failures

The global human health impact of the diesel emissions scandal has been revealed by new research showing a minimum of 38,000 people a year die early due to the failure of diesel vehicles to meet official limits in real driving conditions.

Researchers have created the first global inventory of the emissions pumped out by cars and trucks on the road, over and above the legal limits which are monitored by lab-based tests. Virtually all diesel cars produc far more toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx) than regulations intend and these excess emissions amounted to 4.6m tonnes in 2015, the team found.

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Buddha's birthplace faces serious air pollution threat

The historic site of Buddha's birthplace in Nepal faces a serious threat from air pollution, scientists and officials have warned. Recent data collected from air quality monitoring stations in five places across the country show Lumbini is highly polluted.

The warnings have come amid expanding industrialisation near the sacred site. It is already located in a pollution hotspot on the Gangetic plains. For the month of January, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Lumbini, in southwest Nepal, was measured at 173.035 micrograms per cubic metre.

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Climate talks cool on idea of accommodating the US

Participants in UN climate talks have expressed reservations about making changes to the Paris climate agreement just to keep the US in the treaty. Speculation has increased that President Trump may withdraw the America over fears it could hamper his oil and gas reforms.

There have been suggestions that the US might stay in, if it was allowed to lower its carbon targets. But delegates here say countries should raise not cut their commitments.

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Worries over US pullout to dominate UN climate talks

Concerns over a possible US withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement are likely to be the main focus of UN climate talks here in Bonn. Negotiators from almost 200 countries are gathering for almost two weeks of negotiations aimed at developing the rulebook for the Paris treaty. But a growing worry that President Trump might soon pull out of the 2015 accord is dominating discussions.Some delegates say such a move would be a body blow for the landmark deal.

The May meeting of the UN climate talks body is normally a pretty low-key affair but this is the first gathering of delegates since Donald Trump was inaugurated. Many are worried that it could also be the time the new president decides to pull the plug on US participation in the Paris deal.

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Beijing hit by new air pollution crisis as huge sandstorm blows in

Tiananmen Square in a sandstorm in Beijing, China. Photograph: Imaginechina/REX/Shutterstock

A putrid, nicotine-shaded mist loomed over Beijing on Thursday after a massive sandstorm slammed into the Chinese capital bringing the latest “airpocalypse” to this smog-choked city.

Dozens of flights were reportedly cancelled at Beijing’s airport, the world’s second busiest, and authorities urged residents to stay indoors after levels of PM10, a tiny inhalable particle linked to a variety of lung complaints, soared to above 2,000 micrograms per cubic metre.

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Global warming scientists learn lessons from the pause that never was

People don’t talk about how global warming has stopped, paused or slowed down all that much any more – three consecutive hottest years on record will tend to do that to a flaky meme.

But there was a time a few years ago when you couldn’t open your news feed without being told global warming had stopped by some conservative columnist, climate science denier or one of those people who spend their waking hours writing comments on stories like this. The issue at hand was one of the multiple measurements used by scientists to monitor the state of the planet – the globally averaged temperature.

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China, India swoop on first barrels of Kenyan oil

China and India have emerged as the buyers of the first ever crude oil export from Kenya, with the East African country shelving plans it had to export its crude to Europe.

The two Asian countries will be the first to do business with Kenya when it ships out its oil in June in what the government is calling a test programme. The oil will then be transported by road from Turkana to Kenya’s main port in Mombasa, more than 1,000km away. From there it will be shipped to Asia.

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New study: global warming keeps on keeping on

As humans continue to dump heat-trapping gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the Earth continues to warm. In fact, it has been warming for decades and we now routinely hit temperatures that are 1°C (about 2°F) above the temperatures from 100 years ago.

But despite what we may expect, temperatures across the globe don’t rise little by little each year in a straight line. Rather, temperature changes are a bit bumpy. They go up and they go down somewhat randomly as they increase. Think of a wiggly line superimposed on a straight rising line.

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'Fossil' groundwater's modern secret

The world's oldest and deepest waters are not immune from contamination, warn scientists. It had been assumed that "fossil" reserves found hundreds of meters underground would be largely untouched by modern water sources. But sampling from some 10,000 wells shows this not to be the case.

The new study reveals that about half of the deep groundwater has had contact with rains and snows that fell in the past 60 years. And that means these ancient aquifers are also at some risk from pollution if waste and land management practices are defective.

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Dryland expansion to hit food crops as planet warms

Studies warn climate change will bring faster warming to subtropical dry areas, making crops like wheat and potatoes unviable. In what may be good news only for cactus, termites and drought-resistant grasses, subtropical dry areas are going to expand over large parts of the Earth as the climate warms.

This will seriously reduce the amount of land that can be used to grow crops for human consumption and prevent many deeper-rooted shrubs and trees from growing at all.

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Vulnerable nations call on G20 to end fossil fuel subsidies by 2020

The world’s 49 most climate vulnerable countries have called on the G20 to finally set a date – preferably 2020 – for a phase out of fossil fuel subsidies. Ministers from countries on the front line of climate change have urged rich nations to stop pouring money into the coal, oil and gas industries.

The richest 20 nations have pledged to phase out “inefficient” fossil fuel subsidies over the “medium term”. 

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Climate Change As Genocide: Inaction Equals Annihilation

Not since World War II have more human beings been at risk from disease and starvation than at this very moment. On March 10th, Stephen O’Brien, under Secretary-General of the United Nations for humanitarian affairs, informed the Security Council that 20 million people in three African countries ― Nigeria, Somalia, and South Sudan ― as well as in Yemen were likely to die if not provided with emergency food and medical aid.

Are the famines of 2017 even a valid indicator of what a climate-changed planet might look like. After all, severe famines accompanied by widespread starvation have occurred throughout human history.

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Rain stopped play: Cricket ignores its climate threat

Climate change is hardly – if ever – on the agenda, yet, of all the major pitch games, cricket will be hardest hit by a warming world. From the ochre-coloured Australian outback to the windswept Scottish coast, cricket is defined almost entirely by the weather conditions. If they change, so does the essence of the game.

Many of the big cricket-playing nations are on the frontline of climate change. In 2016, a major match in India had to be moved due to a severe water shortage. And pitches in Bangladesh – a country threatened by intense cyclones, rising sea levels and increasing temperatures – are also feeling the pressure.

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Air pollution as bad for wellbeing as partner's death, say researchers

The effect on well-being of exposure to nitrogen dioxide, a gas mostly produced in diesel fumes, is comparable to the toll from losing a job, ending a relationship or the death of a partner, research suggests.

The study found a “significant and negative association” between life satisfaction and levels of the pollutant, which causes lung problems . These effects were “substantive and comparable to that of many ‘big-hitting’ life events,” according to the researchers behind Can Clean Air Make You Happy?.

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Humans on the verge of causing Earth’s fastest climate change in 50m years

Humans are changing Earth’s climate at an alarmingly fast rate. A new study published in Nature Communications looks at changes in solar activity and carbon dioxide levels over the past 420 million years. The authors found that on our current path, by mid-century humans will be causing the fastest climate change in approximately 50 million years, and if we burn all available fossil fuels, we’ll cause the fastest change in the entire 420 million year record.

The study relates to a scientific conundrum known as the:"faint young sun paradox"– that early in Earth’s history, solar output was 30% less intense than it is today, and yet the planet was warm enough to have a liquid ocean. A stronger greenhouse effect due to higher carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere may be one explanation.

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Each degree of warming thaws India-sized area of permafrost – study

Permafrost, the layer of permanently frozen ground that lies just beneath the Earth’s surface in the polar regions, has been found to be more sensitive to the effects of global warming than climatology had recognized.

In a study published in Nature Climate Change journal, scientists say they expect the warming to thaw about 20% more permafrost than previously thought, potentially releasing significant amounts of greenhouse gases into the Earth’s atmosphere.

The study, conducted by climate change experts from the universities of Leeds and Exeter and the Met Office, all in the UK, and the universities of Stockholm and Oslo, suggests that nearly four million square kilometres of frozen soil – an area larger than India – could be lost for every additional degree of global warming the planet experiences.

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Climate change scientists' bid to drill Everest glacier

Climate-change scientists are to travel to the Himalayas in a bid to become the first team to successfully drill through the world's highest glacier.

The Aberystwyth University-led group will use a drill adapted from a car wash to cut into the Khumbu glacier in the foothills of Everest. They will work at an altitude of 5,000m (16,400ft), in the hope of finding out how climate change affects Khumbu. Once the drilling is done, the team will be able to study the internal structure of the glacier - measure its temperature, how it flows and how water drains through it.

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Diesel cars can improve air quality, claims motor industry group

Car makers’ group SMMT (The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders) claims latest vehicles are the ‘cleanest ever’ and vital in fight against climate change.

Car manufacturers have hit back at the recent spate of negative comments about diesel vehicles, saying that the latest incarnations are “the cleanest in history” and “light years away from their older counterparts”.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) said diesel cars could play an important role in helping improve air quality in towns and cities and in tackling climate change.

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GCF approves eight projects at its first Board meeting in 2017

The first Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board meeting of 2017 concluded today by approving eight new projects and programmes valued at USD 755 million in GCF funding to assist developing countries respond to climate change. The decisions were reached during the 16th meeting of the Board (B.16) at GCF Headquarters in Songdo, Republic of Korea.



Empty reservoirs, dry rivers, thirsty cities – and our water reserves are running out

We live on a parched planet. Farmers till arid pastureland and policymakers fret over empty reservoirs, dry rivers and thirsty cities. And that only scratches the surface – literally – of the world’s water problem. Subterranean aquifers, the world’s reserve water tank, are also running dry. The consequences could be dire, especially for water-stressed and fast-growing Asia..

The gap between water supply and demand – predicted to reach 40% by 2030 – will not be filled by surface water resources, so aquifers are being exploited more and more for agriculture, power generation and daily use in fast-growing cities.


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Sewage free Bagmati in next ten months

The Bagmati river is believed to be free of sewage in the next 10 months. The construction of sewer system on both sides of the river would stop the waste water to mix with the river water. 

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B vitamins may have 'protective effect' against air pollution

B vitamins may offer some protection against the impacts of air pollution, a small scale human trial suggests. Researchers in the US found that high doses of these supplements may "completely offset" the damage caused by very fine particulate matter. The scientists involved say the effect is real but stress the limitations of their work. Follow up studies are urgently needed, they say, in heavily polluted cities like Beijing or Mexico.

While the impacts of air pollution on health have become a cause of growing concern to people all around the world, the actual mechanics of exactly how dirty air makes people sick are not clearly understood.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 90% of the world's population live in areas where the air quality exceeds safety guidelines.

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We already have a magic technology that sucks up carbon

Why have emissions plans that rely on removing carbon from the air with unproven technologies when forests can do it today?

As climate scientist Kevin Anderson pointed out after 2015’s Paris conference, Carbon capture and Storage (CCS) leaves us gambling our future on a “carbon-sucking fairy godmother”. So far the deployment of this technology has been very limited, and it is very unlikely to be rolled out quickly enough to provide the negative emissions we need.

Bioenergy with CCS (Beccs) is even more fantastical. The technology has become a hot topic, as climate policy experts become more conscious of the need for negative emissions. With Beccs, carbon is captured from the air by growing trees, burning them to generate energy, and then burying the emissions using CCS. The trees are then replanted and the cycle begins again. In theory, the more trees we burn and bury, the more CO2 is sucked out of the air.

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Pollution responsible for quarter of deaths of young children, says WHO

Pollution is responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five, according to new World Health Organisation reports, with toxic air, unsafe water, and and lack of sanitation the leading causes.

The reports found polluted environments cause the deaths of 1.7 million children every year, but that many of the deaths could be prevented by interventions already known to work, such as providing cleaner cooking fuels to prevent indoor air pollution.

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Is there a way to tackle air pollution?

The search for solutions to the threat of polluted air is generating ideas that range from the modest to the radical to the bizarre. Four major cities - Paris, Athens, Mexico City and Madrid - plan to ban all diesels by 2025. Stuttgart, in Germany, has already decided to block all but the most modern diesels on polluted days. In India's capital, Delhi, often choked with dangerous air, a jet engine may be deployed in an experimental and desperate attempt to create an updraft to disperse dirty air.

The World Health Organization calculates that as many as 92% of the world's population are exposed to dirty air - but that disguises the fact that many different forms of pollution are involved.

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Air pollution leads to more drug resistant bacteria, study finds

Black carbon found in air pollution can increase the resistance of bacteria that cause respiratory disease, research has found. The discover could lead to a greater understanding of the effects of air pollution on human health, according to the lead scientist of the University of Leicester study.

The four-year investigation focused on how pollution in the air, which is thought to be responsible for millions of deaths each year, affects bacteria in the nose, throat and lungs of humans.

It found black carbon, produced when diesel, biomass and biofuels are burned, changes the way bacteria grow, possibly affecting their ability to survive and beat human immune systems.

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Only 14% of plastics are recycled – can tech innovation tackle the rest?

The world recycles just 14% of the plastic packaging it uses. Even worse: 8m tons of plastic, much of it packaging, ends up in the oceans each year, where sea life and birds die from eating it or getting entangled in it. Some of the plastics will also bind with industrial chemicals that have polluted oceans for decades, raising concerns that toxins can make their way into our food chain.

A new group of companies is innovating on the problem of plastics recycling by tackling everything from styrofoam to Ziploc bags.

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Aerosol study to look at great unknown in climate science

Australian scientists are studying air pollution and cloud formation in Antarctica in an effort to understand how non-carbon aerosolized particles impact on global temperatures.

It’s the first comprehensive study of the composition and concentration of aerosols in the Antarctic sea ice area, a region that influences cloud formation and weather patterns for much of the southern hemisphere.

The impact that aerosolized particles have on the global climate is one of the biggest unknowns in climate science, said a CSIRO scientist, Dr Ruhi Humphries.

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Fish under threat from ocean oxygen depletion, finds study

The depletion of oxygen in our oceans threatens future fish stocks and risks altering the habitat and behaviour of marine life, scientists have warned, after a new study found oceanic oxygen levels had fallen by 2% in 50 years.

The study, carried out at Geomar Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research in Germany, was the most comprehensive of the subject to date. The fall in oxygen levels has been attributed to global warming and the authors warn that if it continues unchecked, the amount of oxygen lost could reach up to 7% by 2100. Very few marine organisms are able to adapt to low levels of oxygen.

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How to win the war on air pollution

Damian Carrington is half right (The war against air pollution has begun- and it will be fought in cities, 13 February) in that cities bear a terrible burden from air pollution and municipal action is critical to address it. However, city governments cannot succeed alone. Much of urban pollution stems from outside city limits and significant progress will only be achieved with policies that also require national, regional and even international commitment.

A significant part of city air pollution drifts in from regional sources like wood-burning rural households, coal-fired power plants, industries and the open burning of agricultural waste and rubbish. 

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Air pollution linked to 2.7 million premature births a year

Traffic fumes, slash-and-burn farming and open wood stoves are raising the risk of babies being born before they are ready. As many as 2.7 million premature births a year – 18% of the global total – can be linked to outdoor air pollution, a study in Environment International found. When women give birth at less than 37 weeks, their offspring are more likely to die in infancy or suffer from learning difficulties, hearing and sight problems through their life.

“This study highlights that air pollution may not just harm people who are breathing the air directly – it may also seriously affect a baby in its mother’s womb,” said Chris Malley, lead author of the study.

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Levi’s jeans to make all its products from 100% recycled cotton

The world’s oldest jeans brand has announced plans to become the first in the fashion industry to make all of its products from 100 percent recycled cotton by 2025. In just eight years, the $4.5 billion clothing company will halt its use of cotton sourced from cotton fields in favor of recycled old clothes. There is one significant challenge; the technology to turn worn cotton into a quality fabric resembling denim has not been developed yet. 

Levi’s is collaborating with the technology sector to solve this problem, announcing in May 2016 its partnership with Seattle-based tech firm Evrnu to produce the first jeans made from regenerated post-consumer cotton waste. 

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Humans causing climate to change 170 times faster than natural forces

For the first time, researchers have developed a mathematical equation to describe the impact of human activity on the earth, finding people are causing the climate to change 170 times faster than natural forces. The equation was developed in conjunction with Professor Will Steffen, a climate change expert and researcher at the Australian National University, and was published in the journal The Anthropocene Review.

The authors of the paper wrote that for the past 4.5bn years astronomical and geophysical factors have been the dominating influences on the Earth system. The Earth system is defined by the researchers as the biosphere, including interactions and feedbacks with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and upper lithosphere.

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Data linking death with air pollution inconclusive, says Indian minister

India’s environment minister has been accused of playing down the health risks of the country’s extremely polluted air by claiming, contrary to research, that there is no conclusive data available linking “death exclusively with air pollution”.

The environmental group Greenpeace released a report in January citing Global Burden of Disease (GBD) research that estimated nearly 1.2 million Indians die each year due to high concentrations of airborne pollutants such as dust, mould spores, arsenic, lead, nickel and the carcinogen chromium.

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Valley Pollution Index (PM 2.5)

Pollution monitoring stations are located at 14 places in the Valley. These stations give hourly average data of pollutant of fine particulate matter PM 2.5.

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Kathmandu- seventh most polluted city

People residing in Kathmandu are already aware of the pollution of the valley.The everyday experience of inhaling the dust and vehicle emission has become a part of life. 

No wonder, Kathmandu has become the seventh most polluted city of the world.

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Temperatures to rise 1-2 degrees anually post-2050: Experts

Temperatures will increase by 1-2 degrees on average each year in the Hindu Kush Himalaya(HKH) region including Nepal after the year 2050 and by 3-4 degrees in some of the higher altitude areas in the region, shown by four years of rigorous scientific research on climate and water scenario.

Only about two months ago, the UN had declared 2016 the warmest year on record, with record-breaking green house gas emissions and melting of Arctic ice. According to the UN World Meteorological Organization, the current global temperature is 1.2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial levels. 2016 beat the previous record.

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Coal and Oil demand could peak in 2020

Fossil fuel giants are vastly underestimating the power of solar panels and electric cars, which could see coal and oil demand peak by 2020.

Energy companies pursuing business as usual are in for a rude awakening, by this analysis, with many oil and mines and oil fields likely to be surplus to requirements.

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Bay of Bengal: depleted fish stocks and huge dead zone signals tipping point

Long treated as a bottomless resource pit, over-exploitation of the ocean, pollution and rising sea levels are having a catastrophic impact on life in the bay.

The bay of bengal's basin contains some of the most populous regions of the earth. No less than a quarter of the world's population is concentrated in the eight countries that border the bay. Bay of Bengal can provide no more than a meagre living for the majority depending on it. In southern India drought and water scarcity have already induced tens of thousands of farmers to join the fishing fleet. Rising sea level are also likely to drive many displaced people into the fishing industry. But, the fisheries of Bay of Bengal have been under pressure for decades and now severely depleted.

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Carbon capture lags behind 2C pathways- study

Technology to pump emissions from coal and gas plant underground is a weak link in climate plans , say researchers.

Wind and solar power are booming, factories getting more efficient and heavy industries giving way to service sectors in major economics.These are positive change in nature climate change paper tracking progress towards the 2C upper limit on global warming in the Paris Agreement.

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Paris tries something different in the fight against smog

Last week Paris suffered its fourth smog of the winter and tried a new idea to protect its residents from the worst effects. Like many European cities, the Paris region has a well-established system of emergency actions that escalate if smog persists.

Under a new French scheme cars are labelled according to the pollution that they emit. This  allows the worst offenders to be banned when necessary. Electric ones get a green sticker. A petrol car made between 1997 and 2003 gets an orange sticker. The new smog scheme banned the most polluting diesels, those more than 16 years old.

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UN agency explores the use of wastewater for farming

Traditionally viewed as a problem to be disposed of, municipal liquid waste could now help to solve the issue of water scarcity. Globally, economic growth ad population expansion are placing increasing pressure on fresh water resources which are being exacerbated by climate change.

The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organizations (FAO) is exploring new ways to address this issue, including waste water to grow crops and help address water scarcity in agriculture.

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We are now breaking global temperature records once every three years

According to NASA, in 2016 the earth's surface temperature shattered the previous temperature record for hottest year by 0.12°C. That record was set in 2015, which broke the previous record by 0.13°C. That record has been set in 2014, beating out 2010, which in-turn had broken the previous record set in 2005.

The streak of three consecutive record hot years is unprecedented since measurement began in 1880. The rapid rate of record-breaking heat (once every three years) is consistent with climate scientists' expectations. 

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China eyes an opportunity to take ownership of climate change fight

Twenty years ago, climate change was believed by many in Beijing to be a conspiracy cooked up by the western world to contain China's development.

Since then, china has performed an about-turn, not only recognizing climate change as major global challenge but also, ahead of Davos this week, vowing to lead the world's effort in combating it.

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China's Xi Jinping says Paris climate deal must not be allowed to fail

The world must not allow the Paris climate deal to be "derailed" or continue to inflict irreplaceable damage in the environment, Chinese president Xi Jinping has said, amid fears the rise of Donald Trump could strike a body blow to fight against global warming.

"The Paris agreement is a milestone in the history of climate governance. We must ensure this endeavor is not derailed," the Communist part leader said.

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Barack Obama transfers $500m to Green climate fund in attempt to protect paris deal

Barack Obama has heeded calls to help secure the future of the historic Paris agreement by transferring a second $500m installment to the Green Climate Fund, just three days before he leaves the office.

The fund was a key aspect to the Paris agreement signed in 2015, which aims to keep global warming "well below" 2C and aspires to keep warming to 1.5C.

Established in 2010, it is financed by wealthy countries and used to assist developing countries with adaptation and mitigation.

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Water-Energy-Food: can leaders at Davos solve this global conundrum?

Huge demands of water presents complicated challenges, but leaders will not resolve these kinds of interconnected risks without a system approach. Global energy consumption is forecast to increase nearly 50% by 2040, driven mostly by emerging economics such as China and India. 

The World Economic Forum encourages a systems approach to solving environment and economic problems- a strategy that brings together all the right people from across government, civil society and business, with access to the right resources- to help jointly explore and resolve these food-energy-water, climate and growth conundrum.

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Valley traffic cops face several health threats

Spending long hours in an environment polluted by exhaust fumes of vehicles and dust has posed a serious health risk to traffic officers in Kathmandu valley.

Traffic police are at increased risk of suffering from respiratory and cardio vascular diseases. There are nearly 1,400 traffic officers in the valley and the concerned authorities have done very little to improve their job condition and look after their health.

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concerned agencies told to take steps to improve air quality

The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of the Ministers (OPMCM) has directed the concerned government agencies and departments to come up with a concrete action plan to mitigate risks to which the general public has been exposed as air quality continuous to deteriorate in Kathmandu valley and other urban areas.

The meeting has directed all the concerned government agencies to come up with immediate measures to improve air quality within two weeks.

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WEF: Environment dominated threat to global economy

The world's fast degrading environment now represent major threat to the global economy, the World  Economic Forum (WEF) warned on Thursday. 

It's annual Global Risks Report lists extreme weather, water shortages, natural disasters and a failure to prepare for climate change as four of the top five perils of 2017 in terms of impact. Nuclear war topped the list and rated as more damaging.

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UN shipping body rejects EU climate initiative

The UN's shipping chief has attacked European efforts to impose regional controls on the sector's greenhouse gas emissions in a letter to leaders  in Brussels.

EU lawmakers are debating whether the bloc should include carbon pollution from the maritime sector under its emissions trading scheme (ETS). 

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How warming seas are forcing fish to seek new waters

Rising sea temperatures are pushing shoals hundreds of miles from native ground, sometimes out of zones that had been set up to protect them.

Part of the problem has its root in past over fishing. But now climate change is exacerbating the issue. If sea temperatures continue to rise, even greater disruption will be caused to fishing stocks. Fisherman will lose their livelihoods and communities will be deprived of their only source of food.

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Climate Change Driving Birds To Migrate Early, Research Reveals

Migrating birds are responding to the effects of climate change by arriving at their breeding grounds earlier as global temperatures rise, research has found.

The University of Edinburgh study, which looked at hundreds of species across five continents, found that birds are reaching their summer breeding grounds on average about one day earlier per degree of increasing global temperature.

The main reason birds take flight is changing seasonal temperatures and food availability. The time they reach their summer breeding grounds is significant, because arriving at the wrong time, even by a few days, may cause them to miss out on vital resources such as food and nesting places. This in turn affects the timing of offspring hatching and their chances of survival.

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No Temperature Dip In Peak Winter In Kathmandu; No Cold Wave In Tarai

Environmentalists and weather experts had warned of climate change affecting Nepal’s weather, nobody had felt the impact before.

However, this year, Kathmandu Valley denizens don’t seem to feel the biting cold even in the peak of winter this year.

According to weather expert Rajendra Prasad Shrestha, in the previous years, the last week of December used to be considered the coldest week in Kathmandu Valley.

The minimum temperature then used to remain below 0 degree Celsius and the public suffered severe biting cold triggered by the frost during early morning.

“But this year, the minimum temperature has hovered above 4 degrees Celsius so far and besides the early mornings and evenings Kathmandu Valley’s winter has lost its bite, so people feel warmer even in mid-winter,” Shrestha told The Himalayan Times, “This is all because of climate change which the people have started feeling clearly.”

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China Won’t Classify CO2 As A Pollutant In New Environment Law

China’s highest legislative body rolled out a new Environment tax targeting companies that emit a variety of air pollutants, yet they declined to list carbon dioxide. The new law comes after 20 cities were left under a blanket of smoke and fog (smog) last week. The new law taxes any company that pollutes the air and water or contributes to noise pollution.

The National People's Congress (NPC) committee, which passed the law, will tax man-made emissions like sulfite and sulfur dioxide. Taxes start at $0.20 per unit and $0.17 per unit respectively. For noise pollution, the new law can tax a manufacturer from $50 to $1,612. CO2, however, gets a free pass.

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UK Hits Clean Energy Milestone: 50% Of Electricity From Low Carbon Sources

Half of the UK’s electricity came from wind turbines, solar panels, wood burning and nuclear reactors between July and September, in a milestone first.

Official figures show low carbon power, which has been supported by the government to meet climate change targets, accounted for 50% of electricity generation in the UK in the third quarter, up from 45.3% the year before.

The rise was largely driven by new wind farms and solar farms being connected to the grid, and several major coal power stations closing.

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India Plans To Generate Nearly 60% Of Electricity From Renewables By 2027

The Indian government has forecast that it will exceed the renewable energy targets set in Paris last year by nearly half and three years ahead of schedule.

A draft 10-year energy blueprint published this week predicts India will be generating 57% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2027. The Paris climate accord target was 40% by 2030.

The forecast reflects an increase in private sector investment in Indian renewable energy projects over the past year, according to analysts.

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Petition Calls For Barack Obama To Fulfil Green Climate Fund Pledge

More than 100 climate and development organisations, along with 70,000 people, have called on Barack Obama to help secure the future of the Paris agreement by transferring the remaining $2.5bn committed by the US.

The Green Climate Fund was a key aspect of the historic Paris agreement signed in 2015, which aims to keep global warming “well below” 2C and aspires to keep warming to 1.5C.

The fund, established in 2010, is financed by wealthy countries and used to assist developing countries with adaptation and mitigation. It was widely seen as a key measure to bring both rich and poor countries to the negotiating table.

The US pledged $3bn towards the fund, making up nearly a third of the $10.3bn pledged in total. But so far, it has only transferred $500m.

“This is one of the only things Obama can do now that Trump can’t undo,” said Jesse Bragg from Corporate Accountability International, the group that organised the petitions. “Once those funds are transferred, Trump won’t be able to take them back.”

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Arctic sea ice hits record monthly low for 7th time in 2016

Though this is when the Arctic is supposed to be refreezing, scientists say sea ice there hit record low levels for November. In the crucial Barents Sea, the amount of floating ice decreased when it would be expected to grow.

Arctic sea ice extended for 3.5 million square miles (9.1 million square kilometres). That’s 309,000 square miles (800,000 square kilometres) below the record set in 2006: a difference larger than state of Texas. The National Snow and Ice Data Center says it was the seventh month this year to set a record low.

“There’s crazy stuff going on up there. It’s bad,” said Rutgers University marine scientist Jennifer Francis.

The data center calculated that ice in the Barents Sea, just outside Norway, shrank by 19,300 square miles (50,000 square kilometers) during what is supposed to be a cold month, but wasn’t. That area is important because recent research links sea ice there to changes in extreme weather in lower latitudes, though scientists have not come to a consensus on that link yet.

“Almost certainly there will be unusual weather events this winter,” Francis said.

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Google To Be Powered 100% By Renewable Energy From 2017

Google’s data centres and the offices for its 60,000 staff will be powered entirely by renewable energy from next year, in what the company has called a “landmark moment”.

The internet giant is already the world’s biggest corporate buyer of renewable electricity, last year buying 44% of its power from wind and solar farms. Now it will be 100%, and an executive said it would not rule out investing in nuclear power in the future, too.

“We are convinced this is good for business, this is not about greenwashing. This is about locking in prices for us in the long term. Increasingly, renewable energy is the lowest cost option,” said Marc Oman, EU energy lead at Google. “Our founders are convinced climate change is a real, immediate threat, so we have to do our part.”

Technology companies have come under increasing scrutiny over the carbon footprint of their operations, which have grown so fast they now account for about 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions, rivalling the aviation industry.

Oman said it had taken Google five years to reach the 100% target, set in 2012, because of the complexity involved with negotiating power purchase agreements.

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EU to miss climate finance targets, warn auditors

The European Union could miss its climate spending targets due to fragmented funding and inflated numbers, warns the European Court of Auditors (ECA).

Although in percentage terms the figures look small, the fact that the total budget is €1 trillion means a great deal of money is being spent on purposes other than mitigating or adapting to climate change.

A report by the ECA reveals that some of the funds labelled climate adaptation were “not proven” to be that. If other criteria were used, the actual spending on climate-related issues in fisheries and agriculture alone would be €33 billion less than estimated.

The report says the EU will spend just under 19% of its budget on climate-related activities by 2020, short of the union’s 20% spending goal.

Between 2014 and 2016, EU climate spending hovered at around 17.6% of the budget, but did not increase significantly, the auditors found. Spending was meant to have reached 19.7% of the total budget by 2017.

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Germany Makes Climate Change G20 Priority

Securing the world against the challenges posed by climate change will be one of the central pillars of its G20 presidency1, the German government has said.

Last Wednesday it released its first policy guide to the Hamburg summit, which is scheduled for July 2017. That statement listed global warming among only a few headline issues it wants discussed.

“One main concern is to make progress on realising the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change,” reads a line in the G20 agenda, which chancellor Angela Merkel presented to her cabinet.

The G20 will be one of the first gatherings for incoming US president Donald Trump to engage with fellow world leaders and gain a sense of the level of global commitment on climate.

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Global Greening slows Rise Of CO2, But Not Fast Enough

The green economy has begun to respond to a greenhouse world, with new research suggesting that the vegetable kingdom has stepped up its appetite for carbon dioxide as emissions continue to grow.

The outcome is that although carbon dioxide proportions in the atmosphere have soared in less than two centuries, from 280 parts per million to 400 ppm now everywhere on the planet, the rate of increase has appeared to slow.

Unfortunately, the bad news from the researchers is that this increased appetite for carbon is nowhere near enough to halt human-induced climate change.

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Canada Quits Coal, Government Sets 2030 Deadline

Canada could be coal-free by the end of next decade under plans outlined by the environment minister Catherine McKenna on Monday.

Nova Scotia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and New Brunswick are the provinces impacted by the federal deadline, although McKenna said there could be flexibility on exact phase-out dates.

Coal accounts for around 10% of the country’s annual greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity grid dominated by hydropower.

“Our goal is to make Canada’s electricity 90% non-emitting by 2030,1” she said in a statement, which left open the possibility coal-plants could continue by using carbon capture technology.

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Countries Hit By Climate Change Pledge To Go 100% Renewable

Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Costa Rica are among 47 countries on the front line of global warming impacts that “will strive to lead” the transition to a green economy.

At UN climate talks in Marrakech, the Climate Vulnerable Forum set out an intention to go 100% renewable and carbon neutral. Members promised to update their national climate plans and produce mid-century strategies before 2020, in line with the aspirational 1.5C global warming limit agreed last year in Paris.

“The impact climate change has brought on us is very high and we have come here to make sure we have a say in our common future,” said forum chair Gemedo Dalle, environment minister of Ethiopia.

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Climate Cash Promises Lack Clarity, Warn Poor Nations At UN Talks

A $50m fund will help developing countries monitor emissions, but calls to radically scale up cash for protection from extreme weather go unanswered.

Donors including the US, UK and Germany have stumped up a total of US$50 million to help developing countries better keep track of their greenhouse gas emissions.

The fund, to be managed by the Global Environment Facility, was launched at UN climate talks in Marrakech on Wednesday.

It is a small but targeted tranche of new cash, aimed at improving transparency and accuracy of national carbon accounts.

Naoko Ishii, chief executive of the GEF, said: “One key factor to the success of the Paris Agreement last year is its country-led approach. To make this approach work, it is absolutely crucial to build the confidence.”

Costa Rica, Kenya and South Africa are first to benefit from the initiative, which was a negotiated outcome of last year’s historic Paris climate summit.

More than 20 countries submitted proposals, Ishii said, showing a strong demand for the tools to monitor the effect of climate policies.

German Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks pledged €50m to the UN Adaptation Fund, although Jan Kowalzig, a finance expert with Oxfam, said the overall total from developed countries was still well below what is needed.

“According to OECD projections, by 2020 just a fifth of the promised $100-billion-a-year by 2020 will be public finance for adaptation. This is far below needs,” he said.

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Canada gives $3.3bn Subsidies To Fossil Fuel Producers Despite Climate Pledge

Canada’s attempt to act on climate change is being undermined by $3.3bn in government subsidies flowing to oil and gas producers in the country a year, a new report has warned.

The prime minister, Justin Trudeau, has vowed to place a national price on carbon dioxide emissions by 2018. Last week, Trudeau said he would not be deterred by the election as US president of Donald Trump, who has called climate change a “hoax”, and would forge ahead with the plan to “show leadership that quite frankly the entire world is looking for”.

But a study by four major Canadian environmental groups has shown that carbon pricing risks being undermined by billions of dollars in subsidies to fossil fuel interests, from both federal and provincial governments.

The $3.3bn annual subsidy, made up of extraction incentives and research and development, amounts to paying polluters $19 for each tonne of carbon dioxide they emit, according to the green groups. This would conflict, they say, with the planned carbon price, which will ramp up to $50 a tonne by 2022.

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2016 Will Be The Hottest Year On Record, UN Says

2016 will very likely be the hottest year on record and a new high for the third year in a row, according to the UN. It means 16 of the 17 hottest years on record will have been this century.

The scorching temperatures around the world, and the extreme weather they drive, mean the impacts of climate change on people are coming sooner and with more ferocity than expected, according to scientists.

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) report, published on Monday at the global climate summit in Morocco, found the global temperature in 2016 is running 1.2C above pre-industrial levels. This is perilously close to to the 1.5C target included as an aim of the Paris climate agreement last December.

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How Could The Trump Presidency Impact Global Climate Policy?

The election of Donald Trump as President of the USA poses a high risk to international climate policy with implications on the national level for the USA and for the broader international climate process around the Paris Agreement.

The Obama Administration pushed climate action despite congressional reservations. Under the Climate Action Plan, the US introduced mitigation actions in a step wise manner.

One important piece of Obama’s strategy has been the Clean Power Plan, which requires federal states to reduce their emissions from power production.

The United States would need to fully implement the Climate Action Plan, including the Clean Power Plan, if it is to meet its 2025 nationally determined contribution (NDC) emissions reduction commitment of 26–28% below 2005 levels.

Currently implemented policies including the full implementation of the Clean Power Plan would only reduce emissions by 9% by 2025 below 2005 levels, so even more action is required to achieve the US climate mitigation targets.

Given Trump’s repeated declarations on no further climate action and no new federal climate policies, these election results seriously threaten the USA’s federal climate action. In the worst case, Trump will work towards reversal of the Clean Power Plan.

If the Clean Power Plan was to be permanently stopped, emissions projections would be significantly higher than in its absence and we would be seeing an increasing emissions trend over the next decade – at around 6% below 2005 levels in 2025.

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Cash Is Needed To Tackle Damages From Climate Impacts

“Loss and damage” refers to the worst impacts of climate change, which typically hit the most vulnerable people.  It’s when climate change goes beyond what it is possible to adapt to.

If super typhoons happen more often, wiping out your whole region and its infrastructure at regular intervals it’s not possible to adapt to that.  If droughts become so frequent, and rainfall so hard to predict, that you can’t grow crops reliably anymore, then it’s not possible to adapt to that either. If the land that you and your family have owned for generations is inundated by sea level rise, well you can’t adapt to that either.

These are examples of loss and damage. The scale of impact requires action beyond how we currently respond to individual disasters and humanitarian crises. It requires large-scale shifts in economic strategies, major ecosystem rehabilitation, extensive social protection programmes and comprehensive contingency schemes, and a significant amount of finance to enable the most vulnerable to recover.

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Paris Climate Change Agreement Enters Into Force

The Paris agreement on climate change enters into force on Friday, marking the first time that governments have agreed legally binding limits to global temperature rises.

The passage of the accord – the fruit of more than two decades of often tortuous international negotiations on combating climate change – was hailed by nations and observers around the world.

Under the agreement, all governments that have ratified the accord, which includes the US, China, India and the EU, now carry an obligation to hold global warming to no more than 2C above pre-industrial levels. That is what scientists regard as the limit of safety, beyond which climate change is likely to become catastrophic and irreversible.

Countries have put forward commitments on curbing carbon emissions under the agreement, but a report on Thursdayfound those pledges would see temperature rises significantly overshoot the threshold, with 3C of warming. Environmental groups urged governments to do more.

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सोलारबाट २१ हजार मेगावाट बिजुली उत्पादन सम्भावना

सरकारले जलविद्युत उत्पादन सम्भाव्यता अध्ययन गरिरहेका बेला सौर्य ऊर्जाबाट मात्र २१ हजार मेगावाट बिजुली उत्पादन गर्न सकिने देखिएको छ । वैकल्पिक ऊर्जा प्रवद्र्धन केन्द्रले गरेको अध्ययनले यस्तो सम्भावना देखाएको हो ।

केन्द्रका अनुसार देशभर ३ सयभन्दा बढी वार्षिक औसत साढे ४ घन्टा घाम लाग्ने पारिला ठाउँ पत्ता लागेका छन् । सम्भावना देखिएकाले सोलारबाट विद्युत उत्पादन गर्न पनि सरकारले पहल गर्नुपर्ने केन्द्रका कार्यकारी निर्देशक रामप्रसाद धितालले बताए ।

‘जलविद्युतको प्रचुर सम्भावना हुँदाहुँदै आर्थिक, भौगोलिक र प्राविधिक कारणले लक्षित उपलब्धि हासिल हुन सकेको छैन,’ उनले भने, ‘लोडसेडिङ कम गर्न र जलविद्युतको ‘ब्यक अप’को रूपमा पनि सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादन आवश्यक छ ।’ सरकारले ‘इनर्जी मिक्स’को अवधारणा अघि बढाएकाले पनि सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादन आवश्यक रहेको उनको भनाइ छ ।

केन्द्रका अनुसार अहिलेसम्म देशभर ४५ मेगावाटका सौर्य प्लान्ट जडान भई यसबाट ७ लाख घरमा सुविधा पुगेको छ । देशका विभिन्न स्थानमा करिब २ सय कम्पनीले सौर्य ऊर्जा जडान तथा मर्मतको काम गर्दै आएका छन् । प्रशस्त घाम लाग्ने ठाउँ भएकाले त्यस्ता ठाउँमा प्लान्ट राख्न सरकारले विशेष जोड दिनुपर्ने केन्द्रका वरिष्ठ अधिकृत मुकेश घिमिरेले बताए ।
‘बढ्दो बिजुलीको माग र उत्पादनमा भइरहेको कमीलाई सौर्य ऊर्जाले पूर्ति गर्न सक्छ,’ घिमिरेले बुधबार नागरिकसँग भने, ‘सौर्य ऊर्जामा भर पर्ने युरोपियन देशमा भन्दा बढी यहाँ वार्षिक घाम लाग्ने ठाउँ छन्, खाली नांगा डाँडापाखामा प्लान्ट राख्दा वातावरणमा समेत प्रतिकूल असर पर्दैन ।’

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Renewables Made Up Half Of Net Electricity Capacity Added Last Year

Experts hail rapid transformation that will see clean energy outgrow fossil fuels in the next five years.

Green energy accounted for more than half of net electricity generation capacity added around the world last year for the first time, leading energy experts have found.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) said the milestone was evidence of a rapid transformation in energy taking place, and predicted capacity from renewable sources will grow faster than oil, gas, coal or nuclear power in the next five years.

But the analysts said the outlook in the UK has deteriorated since the Conservative government took power last year and cut support for wind and solar power. The agency’s chief said Britain had huge renewable energy potential and ministers needed to design stronger policies to exploit it.

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US Energy Shakeup Continues As Solar Capacity Set To Triple

Solar power capacity in the US will have nearly tripled in size in less than three years by 2017 amid an energy shakeup that has seen natural gas solidify its position as the country’s chief source of electricity and coal power continue to fade, according to monthly data published by the US Department of Energy.

Cutting carbon dioxide emissions from electric power plants is a major part of the US strategy for tackling climate change as the country seeks to meet its obligations under the Paris climate agreement and keep global warming from exceeding more than 2C (3.6°F).

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UN Approves Plans For New IPCC Global Warming Report

Governments have approved plans for a new UN report to explore the impacts of warming of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels at a meeting in Bangkok, Thailand.

The head of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Hoesung Lee said the study will be delivered by 2018 ahead of a global review into efforts to tackle climate change.

An outline of the study released on Thursday revealed the IPCC will explore development pathways compatible with limiting warming to 1.5C and their economic implications.

Scientists will also examine the global and regional changes that can be expected under warming up to and above 1.5C. So far, the world has heated to around 1C above 1850 levels.

Under the new Paris Agreement on climate change, nearly 200 countries decided to target a warming limit well below 2C and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5C.

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Wind Could Supply Fifth Of World Electricity By 2030

Wind power could supply as much as 20 percent of the world’s total electricity by 2030 due to dramatic cost reductions and pledges to curb climate change, the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) said in a report.

If last year’s Paris climate accord leads to a worldwide commitment to the decarbonisation of the electricity sector, total wind power capacity could reach as much as 2,110 gigawatts (GW) by then, nearly five times its current level, the industry group said.

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2016 locked into being hottest year on record, Nasa says

Nasa has all but declared this year to be the hottest yet recorded, after September narrowly turned out the warmest in modern temperature monitoring.

Last month was 0.91C above the average temperature for that time of year from 1951 to 1980, the benchmark used for measuring rises.

The new findings follow record-breaking monthly anomalies throughout this year, leading the agency to believe that because of the highs reported so far, 2016 will take the crown as warmest in the 136 years of modern data-keeping.

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UN Agrees Historic Deal To Cut HFC Greenhouse Gases

The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol to cut the use of potent warming greenhouse gases used in fridges and air conditioning has been described as the single most important step that the world can take to limit global warming.

The deal, received with a round of applause in the early hours of Saturday, has delivered on most of the promises made by the member countries last week, getting the world on track to avoid almost 0.5C warming by 2100.

Between 2020 and 2050 70 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent, comparable to the emissions of  nearly 500 million cars, will be prevented from entering the atmosphere thanks to a progressive reduction of HFCs.

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Paris Climate Deal To Enter Into Force On 4 November

The world’s first comprehensive treaty to address global warming will come into force in early November after receiving enough support from countries to become international law.

Late on Wednesday UN climate chief Patricia Espinosa revealed that a  total of 72 countries accounting for nearly 57% of greenhouse gas emissions had formally joined the pact, which aims to limit temperature rises to well below 2C above pre industrial levels.

The deal required backing from 55 countries covering 55% of emissions to make it international law, and under terms of the agreement it will enter into force in 30 days, just ahead of the 2016 UN climate summit in Marrakech, Morocco.

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पेरिस सम्झौता संसदबाट अनुमोदन

व्यवस्थापिका संसदले गत वर्ष फ्रान्सको पेरिसमा भएको जलवायु परिवर्तनसम्बन्धी सम्झौता मंगलबार अनुमोदन गरेको छ । दक्षिण एसियाली मुलुकहरुमा पेरिस सम्झौता अनुमोदन गर्ने नेपाल तेस्रो मुलुक हो । यसअघि माल्दिभ्स र भारतले उक्त सम्झौता अनुमोदन गरिसकेका छन् ।

जनसंख्या तथा वातावरणमन्त्री जयदेव जोशीले जलवायु परिवर्तनसम्बन्धी पेरिस सम्झौता अनुमोदनका संसदमा प्रस्ताव पेस गरेका थिए । प्रस्ताव बहुमतले पारित भएको मन्त्री जोशीले बताए । पेरिस सम्झौतामा नेपालका तर्फबाट तत्कालीन परराष्ट्रमन्त्री कमल थापाले गत वैशाख १० मा अमेरिकामा आयोजित कार्यक्रममा हस्ताक्षर गरेका थिए । राष्ट्रसंघीय जलवायु परिवर्तनसम्बन्धी पक्ष मुलुकहरू (यूएनएफसीसीसी) का १९७ सदस्य राष्ट्रमध्ये १८० ले सम्झौतामा हस्ताक्षर गरेका छन् ।

Nepal Ratifies Paris Agreement On Climate Change

Nepal has ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change here on Tuesday, aiming to make a contribution towards combating global climate change.

The Paris Agreement on climate change was approved unanimously at a House session in the Nepali Capital Kathmandu.

Earlier Tuesday, Environment Minister Jayadev Joshi had tabled the Paris Agreement on the climate change at the House seeking its endorsement.

Nepal had signed the Paris Agreement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in April in New York.

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Scientists Struggle To Keep Up With Melting Arctic

In an unusually stark warning a leading international scientific body says the Arctic climate is changing so fast that researchers are struggling to keep up. The changes happening there, it says, are affecting the weather worldwide.

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) says: Dramatic and unprecedented warming in the Arctic is driving sea level rise, affecting weather patterns around the world and may trigger even more changes in the climate system.

The rate of change is challenging the current scientific capacity to monitor and predict what is becoming a journey into uncharted territory. 

The WMO is the United Nations’ main agency responsible for weather, climate and water.    

Its president, David Grimes, said: The Arctic is a principal, global driver of the climate system and is undergoing an unprecedented rate of change with consequences far beyond its boundaries.

The changes in the Arctic are serving as a global indicator – like a canary in the coal mine – and are happening at a much faster rate than we would have expected.

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India Outlines Conditions For Paris Climate Deal Support

India is on course to ratify the Paris climate agreement by 2 October, but its support comes with conditions.

A cabinet decision on Wednesday cleared the way for the world’s fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases to join the carbon-cutting pact, but emphasised it needed support to take part.

That means “predictable and affordable access to cleaner source of energy” and continued signs that other countries are also curbing their use of fossil fuels, read the statement.

It also means “availability of means of implementation” (more cash) and the need for developed countries to meet their promise to make tougher carbon cuts in before 2020.

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New York City Accelerates Emissions Efforts In Face Of Daunting Sea Level Rise

New York City has set out a plan to quicken its pace of decarbonization in order to meet its emissions reduction target, as the metropolis prepares for a daunting sea level rise due to climate change.

The proposals state that New York “must accelerate efforts” to expand renewable energy generation, improve the energy efficiency of buildings, transition to electric vehicles and improve waste management in order to meet its goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 80% by 2050, based on 2005 levels.

The city has already lowered its emissions by 12% and is set to almost treble this reduction by 2030, but the road map warns that these efforts are not enough and “we must continue to do more to reduce emissions in New York City and lead progress across the globe if we are all to avoid the worst impacts of climate change”.

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China Cuts Pollution At Home, Grows Coal Abroad

Chinese companies and banks are continuing to drive global coal expansion, as state owned companies, backed by state loans, build coal-fired power plants across the world.

This is despite commitments from China’s top leaders to deliver clean energy and low carbon infrastructure for developing countries.

The world’s largest carbon emitter aims to reposition itself as a global green power. In a joint US-China statement at the White House in September 2015, President Xi Jinping agreed to strictly control public investment for overseas projects with high pollution and carbon emissions.

China won praise for promising to peak its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 at the UN climate summit in Paris in 2015 – and trying to wean itself slowly off coal. Chinese manufacturers are now major suppliers of cheap solar and wind parts worldwide.

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US Emissions Set To Miss 2025 Target In Paris Climate Change Deal, Research Finds

Even if US implements emissions-cutting proposals it could still overshoot target by nearly 1bn tonnes of greenhouse gases, according to scientific study.

The US is on course to miss its emissions reduction target agreed in the Paris climate accord nine months ago, with new research finding that the world’s largest historical emitter doesn’t currently have the policies in place to meet its pledge.

Even if the US implements a range of emissions-slashing proposals that have yet to be introduced, the nation could still overshoot its 2025 target by nearly 1bn tonnes of greenhouse gases. This failure would have profound consequences for the US’s position as a climate leader, as well for the global effort to stave off the dangerous heatwaves, sea level rise and extreme weather associated with climate change.

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India To Ratify Paris Climate Deal On 2 October

India will formally approve the Paris climate deal on 2 October, prime minister Narendra Modi revealed on Sunday.

“India will ratify the decisions on October 2, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi,”1 Modi said in a speech to officials of the ruling BJP party in Kerala.

The world’s fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases (counting the EU as a single bloc) and a fast-growing emerging economy, India’s move means it’s almost certain the UN’s new climate deal will come into force this year.

55 countries accounting for 55% of emissions need to ratify the carbon-cutting pact for it to become international law.

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EU To Ratify Paris Climate Deal Next Month

The European Union is on course to ratify the Paris climate agreement next month, but will not further raise its carbon cutting targets till 2018, its top climate official said on Thursday.

All 28 member states are supporting a new drive to accelerate the bloc’s progress towards approving the UN deal, which has so far been ratified by 60 countries.

“We will have a extraordinary [EU] Council meeting on 30 September which the Slovak Presidency will prepare, Parliament will discuss it in the first week of October then a council of ministers will take the decision. By the month of October it will be ready,” Miguel Arias Canete said, speaking on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly in New York.

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Obama Appeals For Climate Investment In Valedictory UN Speech

Barack Obama appealed for a scaling up of climate finance to reduce global inequality on Tuesday, in his last speech to the UN General Assembly as US president.

The UN-backed Green Climate Fund, which is disbursing US$10 billion of initial donations, “should only be the beginning”, he said, calling for investment in research to make clean technologies affordable.

In a wide-ranging 50-minute address, he mounted a defence of international cooperation, arguing that action on climate change was critical to close the gap between rich and poor countries and make the world safer.

“If we don’t act boldly, the bill that could come due will be mass migrations, and cities submerged and nations displaced, and food supplies decimated, and conflicts born of despair,” said Obama.

“The Paris Agreement gives us a framework to act, but only if we scale up our ambition. And there must be a sense of urgency about bringing the agreement into force, and helping poorer countries leapfrog destructive forms of energy.”

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UN: 20 more countries ready to ratify Paris climate deal

The UN secretary general’s chief climate adviser Selwin Hart says 20 countries plan to ratify the Paris climate deal in New York on 21 September, raising hopes the treaty could go live this year.

So far 27 countries including the US, China, Norway and Peru have formally approved the agreement, accounting for just over 40% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Leaders from Mexico and Brazil are among those expected to hand Ban Ki-moon their instruments of ratification next Wednesday at a one-hour event at UN headquarters.

For the pact to enter into force it needs the support of 55 countries accounting for 55% of emissions.

“We are seeing many countries racing towards the finish line,” said Hart. “We have made incredible process to cross those thresholds…it usually takes years, decades and sometimes never to cross these thresholds for entry into force.”

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G20 Reaffirms Climate Commitments – But Dodges Deadlines

Leaders of the world’s biggest economies reaffirmed their commitment to tackling climate change as the G20 summit came to a close in Hangzhou on Monday night.

What they did not agree on were hoped-for deadlines to ratify the Paris climate agreement and phase out fossil fuel subsidies.

The G20 communique, released in French before it was released in English, committed the nations to ratifying the Paris climate agreement. Leaders “expect a rapid implementation of the agreement in all its dimensions,” it said.

However, it stopped short of calling on the entire G20 to join the agreement by the end of 2016. Arvind Panagariya, India’s chief negotiator at the G20 summit, told The Indian Express that he had argued against the inclusion of such a timeline.

“I felt we were not quite ready yet in terms of the domestic actions that are required for us to ratify or at least commit to ratify within 2016. So we plan to do it as soon as possible,” said Panagariya.

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Adaptation Takes Centre Stage As IPCC Prepares 1.5C Study

Tackling climate change is no longer simply about cutting greenhouse gas emissions: flood defences, heat resilient crops and weather warning systems are set to take centre stage.

That’s the message from scientists fresh from an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) meeting in Geneva last week.

The UN science body has started work on a new and potentially devastating report on ways to avoid warming the earth to more than 1.5C above pre-industrial levels – and the consequences of failure.

Due in September 2018, it will set the political tenor for global talks on climate change through to 2020, by which time the new Paris Agreement on climate change is slated to become operational.

Critically, it will underpin a UN-led review the same year into how countries are delivering on the Paris deal, and perhaps offer the basis for those national goals to be increased.

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Global Warming Has Broken Antarctica's Frozen Ice Sheet Into 8,000 Blue Lakes!

Antarctica, the white desert, is supposed to the largest ice mass on Earth, and now global warming is melting it apart.

8,000 stunning blue meltwater lakes spotted over East Antarctica's Langhovde Glacier between 2000 ad 2013 are a clear sign that global warming is making its presence felt.

These lakes are formed as a result of warm air heats an ice sheet's surface.  And, water from the lakes is trickling down the glacier, weakening structural strength.

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US Gas Now A Bigger Carbon Polluter Than Coal

US coal has taken another symbolic stagger as the nation’s major energy agency announced the fuel’s carbon emissions will be surpassed by natural gas for the first time in four decades.

According to analysis by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) natural gas will create 10% more emissions than coal in 2016. This is despite coal being 82% more carbon intensive than gas when it is burned.

Coal slips to third, with petroleum by far the largest contributor to the US’ carbon footprint.

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